Saturday, May 5, 2012

Ethics Final Study Guide Pt. 1

Everything you ever wanted to know about the virtues and vices according to the Summa Theologica


  1. What is a genus, species, and differentia?
    1. Genus: matter
    2. Species: form
    3. Differentia: that which separates a species from everything else in the genus
  2. What are the four causes?
    1. Formal 
    2. Agent
    3. Material
    4. Final
  3. How do the four causes relate to ethics?
  4. What are the five intellectual virtues?
    1. intuition - inductive reasoning
    2. science - reasoning deductively
    3. Wisdom - seeking God
    4. Prudence - directing morals
    5. Art - making things
  5. What are the three acts of the intellect?
    1. Apprehension
    2. Judgment
    3. Reasoning
  6. What does Aquinas mean by science?
    1. Knowledge: a perfection of the intellect
  7. How is ethics a science?
    1. It is a practical study/knowledge of virtue and vice
  8. What are the 12 components of a voluntary action?
    1. Apprehend the good
    2. Will the good
    3. Judge the universal
    4. Intend the good
    5. Counsel
    6. Consent
    7. Judgment of means
    8. Free choice
    9. Command
    10. Execution
    11. Contemplation
    12. Enjoyment
  9. What is the relation between capacity, habit, act and object?
    1. our capacities allow us to act for some object and doing so repeatedly is a habit
  10. What are the various synonyms for capacity?
    1. ability, potential, ...
  11. What are the various species of habits?
    1. virtue
    2. vice
  12. What are the various synonyms for acts?
    1. works, functions, operations...
  13. What are the capacities of humans?
    1. grow, assimilate nutrition
    2. reproduction
    3. sensation
    4. appetite
    5. intellect
    6. will
  14. What are the capacities of animals?
    1. grow, assimilate nutrition
    2. reproduction
    3. sensation
    4. appetite
  15. How is man a rational animal?
    1. Man is an animal capable of reasoning to the knowledge of universal truths
  16. What does voluntary and involuntary mean?
    1. voluntary - consent of the will
    2. involuntary - without consent of the will
  17. What did the word cardinal originally mean?
    1. From the Latin word cardo, meaning hinge: all the other virtues revolve around these
  18. What does the word virtue originally mean?
    1. From the Latin word vir, meaning manly: denoting manly virtue
  19. What are the four cardinal virtues?
    1. Prudence
    2. Justice
    3. Fortitude
    4. Temperance
  20. What part of the soul is prudence found in?
    1. intellect
  21. What does the word prudent originally mean?
    1. knowing, forseeing
  22. What is the difference between practical and speculative reason?
    1. practical - using truth as a means to an end
    2. speculative - finding truth for its own sake
  23. What does Aquinas mean by science?
    1. knowing
  24. What does he mean by self evident?
    1. that which is a necessary conclusion, needs no deductive reason to come to
  25. What is the difference between a universal and a particular?
    1. Universal: that which applies to everything in the species
    2. Particular: a specific instance or application
  26. What is the role of prudence in relation to the ends and means?
    1. prudence illuminates for us the means deemed most appropriate for achieving antecedently established ends
  27. Be able to give examples of ends and means
    1. Universal - marriage
    2. Particular - the marriage of Jane and John Doe
  28. What is meant by a moral virtue?
    1. those that perfect the appetitive powers of the soul
  29. What is meant by a mean in moral virtues?
    1. a balance between the extremes of excess and deficiency
  30. What is meant by command?
    1. the object of prudence, to direct subordinates in the right course of action
  31. What is the difference between an individual and a common good?
    1. an individual good has as its end the good of a specific person, whereas the common good has as its end the collective good of the many.
  32. What is meant by good counsel?
    1. the research of reason to perform any particular act
  33. What is meant by 'judging well according to common law?'
    1. right judgment about particular practical matters
  34. What is meant by 'judging well according to general law?'
    1. right judgment according to higher principles
  35. When is imprudence a sun?
    1. When it is a negation, not a privation, i.e. the movement or act of reason is in opposition to prudence, i.e. rejecting counsel. Mortal when it involves contempt and rejection of the Divine Law, but venial if acting beside the Law and without contempt and with out detriment to things necessary for salvation.
  36. How/ why is lust a cause of imprudence?
    1. because pleasure corrupts the operation of right reason
  37. What is the difference between prudence of the flesh and craftiness?
    1. prudence of the flesh denotes a man who sees carnal goods as his final end
    2. craftiness is the obtaining of an end, whether good or evil, through counterfeit means
  38. How is right related to justice?
    1. right is the object of justice
  39. What are the two basic kinds of right?
    1. Natural right
    2. Positive right
  40. What constitutes a natural right?
    1. the law of equal returns, unchangeable
  41. What is a positive right?
    1. a thing is adjusted or commensurated to a person by agreement or common consent 
  42. In what part of the soul does justice reside?
    1. the will
  43. How is justice a general virtue?
    1. the good of any virtue is referable to the common good, which justice directs, so that all acts of virtue can pertain to justice, insofar as it directs the common good
  44. How is justice a particular or special virtue?
    1. a legal justice directs a man immediately to the good of another individual
  45. What are the two species of justice?
    1. Distributive (whole in relation to its parts)
    2. Commutative (part to part)
  46. What is restitution?
    1. to reinstate a person in the possession or dominion of his lawful goods, must be given for salvation, must pay back the inequality, not just the amount, including giving what was not given in the first place.
  47. What does Aquinas mean by respect of person?
    1. Respect of someone's position or office rather than their personal merits
  48. Under what conditions is killing another person lawful?
    1. Involuntary, so long as not negligent
    2. self-defense, only so far as it is an unfortunate side-effect
    3. Defense of the community or common good
    4. justice executed by legitimate authority
  49. What is Aquinas' argument for corporal punishment?
    1. for the sake of the whole, a part may suffer, especially for the cure of that part
  50. What is the difference between theft and robbery?
    1. Theft takes in secret whereas robbery takes by force
  51. Which is worse?
    1. robbery
  52. What is calumny?
    1. falsely charging a person with a crime
  53. What are the three species of lying?
    1. Jacose: a lie told in jest
    2. Officious: a lie told for the benefit of something else
    3. Malicious: a lie told in order to do someone/something harm
  54. What is reviling?
    1. the dishonoring of a person
  55. What is backbiting?
    1. speaking against another's name secretly
  56. What does Aquinas mean by tale-bearing?
    1. Speaking evil of persons in order to sever relationships
  57. What is derision?
    1. Shaming a person with words
  58. What does Aquinas mean by cursing?
    1. to command or desire another's evil, as evil, being intent on the evil itself
  59. Why does Aquinas think that usury is wrong?
    1. Usury is to sell what does not exist, because money is consumed by its use, and therefore there is an inequality in transaction, which is injustice
  60. What is the difference between sins of omission and sins of transgression or commission?
    1. a sin of omission is not doing what one ought to do
    2. a transgression is doing what one ought not to do
  61. What does Aquinas mean by religion?
    1. offering service and ceremonial rites to a superior nature that men call divine
  62. How is religion a natural phenomenon, rather than a part of special revelation?
    1. Natural reason tells man that he is subject to a thing higher than himself on account of his personal defects. Naturally, anything superior deserves obeisance from that which is inferior
  63. What is the difference between natural religion and revealed religion?
    1. Natural religion - public signs, philosophy and natural revelation, 
    2. Revealed religion - given by God to private individuals, involves belief
  64. What does Aquinas mean by prayer?
    1. To ask becoming things of God, an act of reason
  65. How is prayer efficacious?
    1. by prayer we make ourselves able to receive what God has already deigned to give us (partial causality)
  66. What are the two theological errors that one must avoid in a discussion of prayer?
    1. God can change His mind
    2. Implying necessity on human affairs
  67. What is meant by contingent?
    1. that which could be otherwise
  68. What is meant by necessary?
    1. that which could not possibly be otherwise
  69. What does Aquinas mean by sacrifice?
    1. Offering certain sensible signs to God as a sign of the subjugation and honor due to Him
  70. What does Aquinas mean by vow?
    1. A binding to do or omit some particular thing
  71. What is meant by an oath?
    1. Calling God to bear witness to the Truth of a statement
  72. Is cursing the same as using foul or obscene language?
    1. no
  73. What is perjury?
    1. to swear falsely under oath
  74. What is piety?
    1. giving honor to one's parents
  75. What is observance?
    1. paying honor to persons in positions of dignity
  76. What is dulia?
    1. paying honor to those humans that are above us
  77. What is latria?
    1. to give honor to God
  78. What is honor?
    1. recognition of merit 
  79. What is the virtue of truth?
    1. speaking the truth with entire self - representing oneself honestly
  80. What are the different kinds of lies?
    1. material lie
    2. formal lie
  81. What is the difference between a material lie and a formal lie?
    1. material - false statement (irrespective of intent)
    2. formal - intention to deceive (irrespective of truth of words)
  82. What is irony?
    1. belittling oneself
  83. What is affability and its corresponding vices?
    1. flattery as excess and quarreling as deficiency
  84. What is liberality and its corresponding vices?
    1. to use money well for the sake of others
      1. covetousness as the deficiency
      2. prodigality as excess
  85. What is equity?
    1. interpreting law according to the spirit of the law and not its letter
  86. How does the Decalogue pertain to the virtues?
    1. They confirm the basic principles of morality. Religion pertains to the first three, piety to the fourth and justice to all the rest
  87. What is fortitude?
    1. that which removes all obstacles to doing good
  88. What is the ultimate act of fortitude?
    1. martyrdom
  89. What is magnanimity?
    1. literally 'great mindedness,' pursuing great things
  90. What is munificence?
    1. greatness in regards money
  91. What is ambition?
    1. excess of magnanimity
  92. What is pusillanimity?
    1. deficiency of magnanimity, literally 'small mindedness'
  93. What is temperance?
    1. the moderation of pleasures
  94. What is shamefacedness?
    1. when one is embarrassed of their sins
  95. How does shamefacedness point to the reality of ethics?
    1. shows a recognition of wrongdoing
  96. What does Aquinas mean by fasting and abstinence?
    1. fasting is withholding  from all food
    2. abstinence is withholding from certain foods
  97. What is the difference between chastity and virginity?
    1. chastity is regulation of venereal acts according to one's state in life
    2. virginity is complete abstinence from venereal acts
  98. Why are lust and drunkenness sinful?
    1. because they draw men away from the order of right reason
  99. What is continence and incontinence?
    1. continence - doing what is right in opposition to desire
    2. incontinence - doing what is wrong in conjunction with desire in opposition of conscience
  100. What is cruelty?
    1. hardness of heart in exacting punishment
  101. What is meekness?
    1. that which moderates anger
  102. What is clemency?
    1. that which moderates punishment
  103. What is modesty?
    1. honesty in outward movements
  104. How is anger a virtue?
    1. when it directs a man to correction of a wrong
  105. What is studiousness?
    1. moderation of desire for knowledge
  106. What is curiosity?
    1. excess with regards studiousness
  107. What are the capital vices?
    1. vainglory
    2. envy
    3. anger
    4. sloth
    5. covetousness
    6. gluttony
    7. lust
  108. What makes a vice capital?
    1. derived from 'caput' meaning head, a vice leading to other vices

No comments:

Project Playlist