Solidarity: The glue that holds people together in social institutions
Emile Durkheim (1893-1933) was a sociologist interested in how societies managed to unify their members with shared values and other bonds. He called this unity social integration, the degree to which members of a group or society feel united.
For small units he proposed an answer in mechanical solidarity, a shared consciousness that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks. This kind of solidarity can only take place in small and relatively undeveloped communities. There is usually little difference between members of the society and they share many ideals and engage in similar behaviors.
As social groups grow, they specialize divisions of labor. The industrial revolution was the driving force for most of today's divisions in labor, and as a result, people no longer depend on each other for similar values and ideas. Rather, persons are dependent on each other to fill the specific role in society they do. Durkheim called this new form of solidarity organic solidarity.
Ferdinand Tonnies used the terms Gemeinshaft and Gesellshaft to describe this fundamental shift in working relationships. Gemeinshaft communities, such as the Amish, focus on personal ties, kinship connections and lifelong friendships. These have been mostly crowded out today by the short-term, individualistic and self-interested associations which characterize Gesellshaft communities.
Solidarity is fostered through interdependence, whether the interdependence of shared ideals and values in a pre-Industrial revolution society or the material interdependence of roles people experience in an impersonal, industrial society.
Sunday, May 6, 2012
In 1974 Immanuel Wallerstin first proposed an alternative explanation of global stratification to the colonial theory of the 19th century. According to this theory, industrialization was the key which led to four groupings of nations: core nations, semi-periphery, periphery, and external areal.
- The first group, the core nations, were the nations that industrialized first and which grew rich and powerful. These nations include Britian, France, Holland, and later Germany
- The second group, the semi-periphery, are nations located in the Mediterranean who were originally quite wealthy, but their economy stagnated because of dependence on trade with the core nations.
- The third group, the periphery, are the eastern European countries who sold cash crops to the core nations.
- Lastly, the external area, are those nations which were left completely out of the early development of capitalism. This includes mostly Africa and Asia, though modern developments of the economy have changed that dynamic.
The globalization of capitalism has created a network of relationships between national economies. Production and trade in one country are affected by social upheaval or trade policy in another and whatever happens to one nation has consequences for the rest of the world. We are now part of a World system.
Definition of Sociology: The scientific study of human groups and institutions.
3 Sociological Perspectives
3 Sociological Perspectives
- Symbolic Interactionist
- Conflict Theorist
Applied to Deviance
- Functionalists point out that deviance, including criminal acts, is functional for society. Functions include affirming norms and promoting social unity and social change. According to strain theory, societies socialize their members into desiring cultural goals. Many people are unable to achieve these goals in a socially acceptable manner, i.e. by institutionalized means. Deviants, are people who either give up on societal goals or use disapproved means to attain them. Merton identified five types of responses to cultural goals and institutionalized means: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. Illegitimate opportunity theory stresses that some people have easier access to illegal means of achieving societal goals.
- Symbolic interactionists have developed several theories to explain deviance such as crime (the violation of legalized norms). According to differential association theory, people learn to deviate by associating with others. According to control theory, each of us is propelled toward deviance, but most of us conform because of an effective system of inner an outer controls. People with less effective controls deviate. Labeling theory focuses on how labels help funnel people into or divert them away from deviance. People who commit deviant acts usually use techniques of neutralization to deflect social norms.
- Conflict theorists take the position that the group in power imposes its definitions of deviance on other groups. From this perspective the law is an instrument of oppression used by the powerful to maintain their position of privilege. The ruling class uses the criminal justice system to punish the crimes of the poor while diverting its own criminal activities away from the public eye.
The 4 components of Non-Material Culture
- example: Value: Marriage supported by marital laws, a Norm
5 Types of Societies and the means of transition
- transformed by an ideology: the earth belongs to us
- transformed by a tool: the Plow
- Agricultural society
- transformed by an invention: the Steam Engine
- Industrial Society
- transformed by an invention: the Microchip
- Post industrial
Agricultural society = Dawn of Civilization
- specialization of Labor
- development of cities and social institutions
Industrial Society = Birth of Sociology
- rapid change causing anxiety over social solidarity
- science seen as having all the answers
- sociology = interest in changes in society + scientific method
- interested in how authority is exercised and legitimized
- Emphasized the need to look for subjective meanings (he called this "Verstehen") and introduced the notion of
- Ideal types (the use of typologies in understanding social phenomenon)
- Major work: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
- First to conduct real scientific research on suicide and solidarity
- mechanical solidarity
- the ties that bind people in a pre-Industrial Revolution society
- characterized by shared values and strong social relationships
- Organic solidarity
- the interdependence that holds people together in a very complex, impersonal society
- Utopian thinker who theorized about the nature, movement, and predicted demise of capitalism
- influential in launching Conflict perspective
- Co-Authored (w/ Fredrick Engels) "The Communist Manifesto"
- Other major work: "Das Kapital" (a major criticism of capitalism)
- Population and food are a problem.
Solution is starvation, population will curb itself
- Population and resources are a problem.
Solution is birth control.
Demographic Transition Theory
- Population and space are a problem.
Solution is birth control.
- Population and technology are a problem.
Solution is to modernize the world.
- Distribution of resources, waste, political corruption and instability, and access and utilization of resources are problems, not population.
Solution: redistribution, political stability, stewardship
- transition from high birth rate and death rates to low birth rates and death rates
- some cultures do not move through this transition because of the momentum of cultural and structural forces that continue to value children as a blessing (not an "economic liability")
Socialization: Process by which we learn the norms of society and abide by them according to our statuses and roles.
- Agents of socialization: social forces influencing individual
- Status: position in society individuals fill
- Role: behavior expected of a status
The Iberian Peninsula is home to the convergence of many different traditions. The Strait of Gibraltar guards the Mediterranean and is the meeting place of Europe and Africa. Ambitious expeditions to the new world by Columbus spread the culture and traditions of the Spanish people to the Western Hemisphere, and interactions with the Moslem invaders served to gather together influences from across the entire globe. The peoples of the Iberian Peninsula cultivated a rich pagan tradition that developed through the influence of Christian missionaries into the Mozarabic chants of the eighth through the eleventh centuries
(Angles, Relations of Spanish Folk Song to the Gregorian Chant, 1964). What transformed
sacred Spanish music from its pagan roots into the predominantly Gregorian
tradition of the seventeenth century? These sacred musical practices did not
develop in an isolated manner, but were altered, enriched and eventually exterminated
by the cultural expectations of their conquerors, especially those of the Latin
Church. The first wave of influence on the native traditions of Spain was
Hellenistic, brought by the Greek, Carthaginian, and Roman colonists (Chase, 1941).
The second wave took place before and after the fall of Rome by the spread of
Christianity, aided greatly by the rule of the Visigoths from 312 to 711 (The Mozarabic Rite, 1906). Sacred music
experienced an upheaval during the conquest and rule of the Moors from 711 to
the recapture of Toledo by the northern Christians in 1085, but little or no
evidence of its influence on chant can be conclusively deciphered (Parrish, 1958). The main Moorish
influence on the Spanish sacred musical tradition is the name “Mozarab,” a term
referring to the Christians who did not flee or convert to Islam (Prado, 1928).
The last wave of influence on the sacred tradition of Spanish music was the
reconquest of Spain by Christian forces in 1085. This Reconquista was the final and most drastic transformation of sacred
music. No longer concerned with correcting liturgical abuses, this final
invasion by the northern Christians served to usurp the place of organic sacred
traditions with Gregorian chants.
The sacred music of ancient Spain revolved around rhythms and instruments most suited for dance, which they used in worship of the moon and other natural deities
(Livermore, 1972). Evidence of pre-Greek musical
instruments are found in the cave paintings of Aigues Vives, which depict
perforated shells used as wind instruments, and of Cuento de la Mina, where
there are paintings of animal horns, perhaps used both as wind and as
percussion instruments (Chase, 1941).
The influence of dance did not fade from sacred ceremonies until the late sixth
century, when the Council of Toledo forbade dancing and singing ‘unholy songs’
during the liturgy (Angles, Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the 14th century, 1940). Greek colonists
expanded upon the ancient musical traditions of the time and introduced Greek
musical theory and instruments, and the later Roman conquerors continued the
exposure to classical musical traditions, which spread the influence of Greek
musical theory to further reaches of the Iberian Peninsula (Chase, 1941).
The Greek colonists erected ports on the southeastern and northern coasts,
especially in the regions of Cantabria and Galicia, where the ruins of temples
to Diana give testament to the presence of sacred Greek music (Livermore, 1972). A large lyre at
Merida, known as Mercury’s great lyre, was placed in the temple dedicated to
him, and ceramic illustrations depict instrumentalists playing the double aulos
and a horn or tropa. (Livermore,
Carthaginian influences can be seen in more ceramic illustrations of dance
ceremonies from the 5th century B.C. (Livermore, 1972). When the Roman conquerors marched into
Hispania, they established a system of mutual enrichment. Spain herself
contributed many poets, philosophers, and even emperors to the Roman kingdom,
while Rome brought their vast technological advances and military practices as
well as their art and architecture (Chase, 1941).
“In the south of Spain musical history begins with a quotation from Martial and
the dances of the saltatrices of
Cadiz – de Gadibus improbis puellae –
famous in Rome in the second and third centuries.”
His contemporary, Quintillianus, also stressed the use of dance rhythms and
classical instruments such as the pipe and the lyre (Chase, 1941). The colonies
established by the classical empires brought not only classical theory and
philosophy, but also contributed to the collection of instruments. Sacred music
in Spain continued to draw from these influences, especially rhythmic
foundations, well into the 10th century (Trend, 1924).
During the fourth century, Spain experienced their own “twilight of the gods” as Christianity spread its sacred practices abroad. The influx of Christianity transformed the prior sacred traditions through their experience with Ambrosian, Gallican and Old Roman chant. Before the fall of Rome, the Christian influence in Spain was already widespread. Christian missionaries were on the move to the western reaches of the Roman Empire by 167, and after the Edict of Milan in 313 an explosion of conversion took place throughout Europe. One of the first Gnostic missionaries, Priscillius, kept most of the pagan practices of the native people and set religious texts to originally pagan melodies
Priscillianist tunes and dances exerted influences on future devotional hymns
and chants and acquired a more devotional character as they were gradually
freed from pagan and sometimes phallic imagery (Trend, 1924).
Church officials attempted to purge liturgical music of pagan influences during
the Council of Lugo in 571 (Trend, 1924),
though dancing and the use of instruments continued to be present in the early
Spanish liturgy until the sixth century at the third Council of Toledo (Angles, Relations of Spanish Folk Song to the
Gregorian Chant, 1964). In addition to the pagan roots of this
music, Latin influences on early sacred repertoire exist as early as the fifth
century as evidenced in the martyr poems of Prudentius (Messenger, 1947).
As the Visigoths spread and solidified their empire, they gradually assimilated into the culture and the religion of the Catholic populace. Originally adherents of the Arian heresy, the Visigoths officially reconciled to the Church at the third Council of Toledo in 589
(Angles, Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the 14th century, 1940). It was during the
period of Visigothic rule that the three centers of musical culture developed:
Seville, Toledo, and Saragossa (Huglo, 2007).
The Hispano-Gothic chants, precursors to the Mozarabic chants, developed during
this time through the often direct action of liturgists and members of church
hierarchy. The brothers St. Leander and St. Isidore, musicians and successive
archbishops, were responsible for the initial musical developments in Seville (Angles, Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the
14th century, 1940). St. Leander and his contemporaries
were especially important because of the influences they brought with them from
sojourns in Constantinople and because of the many compositions credited to
them. St. Isidore summarized the musical theories of Cassiodorus, themselves
the intellectual offspring of Aristoxenos, in the monumental work Etymologiae (Chase, 1941).
Book III of the Etymologiae consists
primarily of writings on musical practices and its place in philosophy.
Isidore’s De ecclesiasticis officiis
deals exclusively with sacred musical practices, including hymns and psalmody (Huglo, 2007). In Toledo, St.
Eugene codified the liturgical chants, as St. Gregory did with Roman chant. For
this reason, chants from this time (Hispano-Gothic) are commonly referred to as
Eugenian chants (Livermore, 1972).
It is easy to surmise the influence of other western chants on Hispano-Gothic chant when comparing manuscripts from Hispanic, Gallican and Ambrosian sources. Similarities in chant melodies across Ambrosian, Gallican and Hispano-Gothic chant may be observed by comparing the notation of the introit “Sitientes” which appears in the Mozarabic Liber Ordinum of Silos, a manuscript of St. Gall and the Antiphonarium of Montpellier
(Prado, 1928). For example, “at the median of the verse
there is only a short rest without melodic formula, exactly as in Ambrosian
similarity between the modalities of Old Roman and Hispano-Gothic chants are
not surprising, being built on the same Greek theories of tonality and
developing in the same family of chant (Huglo, 2007).
Prado, Huglo, and Parrish all contend
that the Hispano-Gothic modes were identical to the modes of Gregorian chant
and a diagram in Musica Isidori
establishes the musical scale of Hispano-Gothic chant, the original source of
which seems to be the Byzantine trochos.
Huglo also suggested that the common Mozarabic practice of centonization has
its roots in Byzantine tradition (Huglo, 2007).
These Byzantine influences seem to owe at least part of their origin to St.
Leander and his companion Johannes of Gerona, who spent seventeen years in
Byzantium (Angles, Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the 14th century, 1940). The presence of
four distinct languages (Latin, Greek, Aramaic and Hebrew) in the Illatio (Sanctus) alone indicates
further the vast treasury of influences on the liturgy (Rito
Hispano-Mozarabe Ordinario de la Misa, 2009) and Prado even went
so far as to suggest Jewish influences in the Pater Noster and the various Preces
The Visigothic rule, however favorable for the cultivation of sacred music, was economically and politically weak and offered little resistance to the pressing wave of Muslim conquest that swept into Spain from Africa in the eighth century. Though it is a point of pride for Spanish musicians to claim that they received no musical influence from their Muslim rulers, the Moorish invasion in 711 brought the musical traditions of the Middle-east to Spain. Many historians have emphasized how Islam tolerated much of Christian practice, though St. Eulogius decried the periods of intense purgation when “persecution filled the prisons with martyrs” and the chanting of the Divine Liturgy fell silent. It was during this time period that the term “Mozarab” surfaced as the name given to those Spaniards who held to their Christian beliefs instead of becoming Muslim. Over time the name came to refer to the liturgical practices, language and chants of the Christian Spaniards during this time
As well as bringing their instruments, the Moors also brought their unique
theoretical practices and their preference for extended melismas and lively
rhythms. The philosopher-musician Al-Farabi in his Kitab al-misiqi al-kabir, the Grand Book on Music, prescribed seven
series of rhythms that were often strongly marked and decorated with ornate,
florid embellishments (Livermore, 28). One of the most prominent examples of
Muslim melodic influence on sacred music, las
Cantigas de Sancta Maria, are not genuinely sacred but secular genres with
sacred text, as it was with most of the musical practices of the time, blending
the realms of sacred and secular (Livermore, 1972). The Moorish influence on chant was an
influence of negation, i.e., because of their presence the musical center of
Saragossa and Toledo declined as centers of liturgical music. Nevertheless, the
northern, mostly Christian centers such as Cordova survived and even flourished
during this time in their own traditions (Angles, Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the 14th century, 1940).
The final stage of influence on the native sacred chants of Spain prior to the Renaissance occurred during the Reconquista, the purging of Moorish rule by Christian powers. The Reconquista so altered the sacred musical traditions of Spain that it is nearly impossible to render the ancient chants with any fidelity
(Spain in the Eleventh Century, 1858). This movement
attempted to drive the physical presence of the Moors out of Spain and also
sought to unite Spain with the rest of Catholic Europe by adopting the Roman
rite and with it Gregorian chant (The Mozarabic Rite, 1906). The main proponents
of the shift from native to more universal forms of worship were Alphonse IV of
Castile and his queen, Constance, the daughter of Guido of Aquitaine. A
French-born princess, Queen Constance was therefore warmly attached to the Roman
liturgy (Trend, 1924).
She collaborated with a French monk,
Bernard, whom Alphonse VI had instated as Bishop of Toledo, to replace the
Mozarabic liturgy and chants with those of Latin practice (Spain in the Eleventh Century, 1858). The main center of resistance to the
liturgical reforms took place in Toledo, where Alphonse VI made the Roman rite
obligatory immediately following his capture of the city in 1086. The people
even held superstitious contests to “prove” which rite was superior, including trial
by both fire and the sword (Trend, 1924).
Although the results invariably favored the Mozarabs, Alphonse IV, Queen
Constance, and the monks of Cluny were determined that the Roman rite should
have the pride of place (The Performance of Music in
Their efforts were ultimately successful, though six parishes in Toledo were
granted special permission to continue celebrating the Mozarabic rite. At the
turn of the thirteenth century, however, even there it had become obsolete (Angles, Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the
14th century, 1940). Only about twenty or so genuine
Mozarabic pieces exist in their entirety to this day, mostly at the Benedictine
Monastery of Domingo de Silos. Other sources of chant and descriptions of
liturgical music of the time that survive to this day are the Gradual of the Vall d’Aran, the Codex II of the Escorial, the Liber
Sacramentorum, Codex Veronensis,
and the Antiphonarium of Leon.
At the end of the 15th century Cardinal Francesco Jimenez de Cisneros of Toledo attempted to revitalize the chants and printed a Breviary and a Missal in 1500
(Mozarabic Liber Ordinum, 1928). Thanks to the two hundred
years of silence, however, the diastematic neumes could no longer be translated
by contemporary musicians. The difficulty of understanding Mozarabic neumes is
compounded by the extreme demographic variety of notation and the ambiguity of
distinctions between relative pitch and rhythmic indicators (Prado, 1928).
For example, the neume types “scandicus,
punctus, podatus, clivis and torculus
are written in 9, 10, 13, 17, and 28 ways, respectively.” In
an effort to make performance of the chants possible, Cisneros imposed strict
verse rhythms on melodies which were meant to be sung freely (Mozarabic Liber Ordinum, 1928). As it is today,
modern scholars have tried to render the chants in a more faithful format by
stripping them of whatever seems to be artificial, including the highly metered
rhythms. (Prado, 1928). According to
Messenger (1947), the two fundamental issues with understanding the Mozarabic
neumes lay in understanding the number of notes indicated by a neume and
deciphering the relative tonal height indicated by the neumes. Comparison of
the Mozarabic chants with other chant traditions offers modern scholars many
clues to their translation; nevertheless, performances of these chants remain
highly speculative. A popular example of restored Mozarabic chant is Gaudete populi from the San Milan Liber Ordinum, a recording of which can
be found on the Schola Cantorum CD, “A Treasury of Early Music.” Unique sources
of Mozarabic hymnody, pilgrim songs sung at the Shrine of St. James of Compostela,
lived on in oral tradition and were finally transcribed in 1897 (Trend, 1924). The Codex Calixti II also contains quite a
number of these hymns, but in their transcription, the staff has only one line
and the intervallic relationships rely on educated speculation. Because of the
Reconquista the ancient traditional chants of Spain were abandoned for those of
the Gregorian and as result, a great heritage of Spanish culture has been lost.
In conclusion, each wave of new traditions brought change, sometimes drastic and other times quite subtle, to the sacred musical practices of the Iberian people. The classical colonists brought their wealth of musical philosophy, theory and their instruments to the region. Christianity then brought its riches from all the nations and combined them with the native, dance-like rhythms, contributing again to the store of musical instruments and theories. The glory of the Mozarabic chant, however, was short lived, as the last invasion by the Christian northerners stripped the regions of their cultural heritage in a disgusting display of ethnocentricism and political motivation
(Spain in the Eleventh Century, 1858). No single
development in music is completely self-fueled; it must influence and be
influenced by various traditions and complementary movements. Mozarabic chant
was no exception, being influenced by Ancient Classical theory, folk music,
foreign chant traditions, and liturgical mandate. The history of sacred Spanish
music is, however, exceptional in that it was always changing, i.e. there was
never a point at which the chants and their performance were not actively developing.
Vital and organic, Spanish sacred music prior to the Reconquista held a
treasure-trove of unique musical practices, tragically beaten, but not
destroyed completely. The Mozarabic chants are dead to all with the exception
of the occasional celebration of the Mozarabic liturgy or the rare recording of
intrigued musicians. As of today, there exists no habitat for these unique
chants, and until there is, they will continue to lie forgotten by the broader
musical community and the religious community for whom they existed in the
Angles, H. (1940). Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the 14th century. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4, 494-528.
Angles, H. (1964). Relations of Spanish Folk Song to the Gregorian Chant. Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 16, 54-56.
Chase, G. (1941). Music of Spain. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Huglo, M. (2007). The Musica Isidori Tradition in the Iberian Peninsula. In S. Zapke, Hispania Vetus: Musical-Liturgical Manuscripts from Visigothic Origins to the Franco-Roman Transition (9th-1th Centuries) (pp. 61-92). Bilbao: Fundacion BBVA.
Livermore, A. (1972). A Short History of Spanish Music. New York: Vienna House.
Messenger, R. E. (1947). Hymnista. Speculum, Vol. 22, No. 1, 83-84.
Mozarabic Liber Ordinum. (1928). Speculum, Vol. 3, No. 2, 239.
Parrish, C. (1958). A Treasury of Early Music: Masterworks of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Baroque Era. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.: New York.
Prado, R. P. (1928). Mozarabic Melodics. Speculum, Vo. 3, No. 2, 218-238.
Rito Hispano-Mozarabe Ordinario de la Misa. (2009). Toledo: Ediciones Toledo, S.L.
Spain in the Eleventh Century. (1858). The Catholic Layman, Vol. 7, No. 84, 140-141.
The Mozarabic Rite. (1906, October). The Church Quarterly Review, 112-123.
The Performance of Music in Spain. (1929). The Musical Times, Vo. 70, No. 1034, 364-365.
Trend, J. B. (1924). Music in Spanish Galicia. Music & Letters, Vol. 5, No. 1, 15-32.
 J. B. Trend, “Music in Spanish Galicia,” Music & Letters 5, no. 1 (1924): 14
 Michel Huglo, “The Diagrams Interpolated into the Musica Isidori and the Scale of Old Hispanic Chant,” in Western Plainchant in the First Millennium: Studies in the Medieval Liturgy, ed. Sean Gallagher, (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2003), 256.
 Higini Angles. “Hispanic Musical Culture from the 6th to the 14th Century.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Oct., 1940) p. 500.
 Anne Livermore, A Short History of Spanish Music (New York: Vienna House, 1972), 14.
Saturday, May 5, 2012
The Virtues and their corresponding vices
(E) = excess
(D) = Deficiency
(E) = excess
(D) = Deficiency
- prudence of the flesh
- respect of persons (against distributive justice)
- bodily injury
- theft and robbery
- false judgment
- Do Good and Avoid Evil
- Transgression (E)
- Omission (D)
- Superstition (E)
- idolatry (E)
- divinations (E)
- observances (E)
- undue worship (E)
- irreligion (D)
- perjury (D)
- sacrilege (D)
- simony (D)
- dishonor of parents
- Friendliness/ Affability
- Flattery (E)
- Quarreling (D)
- Covetousness (D)
- Prodigality (E)
- fear (D)
- fearlessness (E)
- daring (E)
- presumption (E)
- ambition (E)
- vainglory (E)
- pusillanimity (D)
- meanness (D)
- waste (E)
- Effeminacy (D)
- Pertinacity (E)
- Insensibility (D)
- Intemperance (E)
- Curiosity (E)
- Pusillanimity (D)
Everything you ever wanted to know about the virtues and vices according to the Summa Theologica
- What is a genus, species, and differentia?
- Genus: matter
- Species: form
- Differentia: that which separates a species from everything else in the genus
- What are the four causes?
- How do the four causes relate to ethics?
- What are the five intellectual virtues?
- intuition - inductive reasoning
- science - reasoning deductively
- Wisdom - seeking God
- Prudence - directing morals
- Art - making things
- What are the three acts of the intellect?
- What does Aquinas mean by science?
- Knowledge: a perfection of the intellect
- How is ethics a science?
- It is a practical study/knowledge of virtue and vice
- What are the 12 components of a voluntary action?
- Apprehend the good
- Will the good
- Judge the universal
- Intend the good
- Judgment of means
- Free choice
- What is the relation between capacity, habit, act and object?
- our capacities allow us to act for some object and doing so repeatedly is a habit
- What are the various synonyms for capacity?
- ability, potential, ...
- What are the various species of habits?
- What are the various synonyms for acts?
- works, functions, operations...
- What are the capacities of humans?
- grow, assimilate nutrition
- What are the capacities of animals?
- grow, assimilate nutrition
- How is man a rational animal?
- Man is an animal capable of reasoning to the knowledge of universal truths
- What does voluntary and involuntary mean?
- voluntary - consent of the will
- involuntary - without consent of the will
- What did the word cardinal originally mean?
- From the Latin word cardo, meaning hinge: all the other virtues revolve around these
- What does the word virtue originally mean?
- From the Latin word vir, meaning manly: denoting manly virtue
- What are the four cardinal virtues?
- What part of the soul is prudence found in?
- What does the word prudent originally mean?
- knowing, forseeing
- What is the difference between practical and speculative reason?
- practical - using truth as a means to an end
- speculative - finding truth for its own sake
- What does Aquinas mean by science?
- What does he mean by self evident?
- that which is a necessary conclusion, needs no deductive reason to come to
- What is the difference between a universal and a particular?
- Universal: that which applies to everything in the species
- Particular: a specific instance or application
- What is the role of prudence in relation to the ends and means?
- prudence illuminates for us the means deemed most appropriate for achieving antecedently established ends
- Be able to give examples of ends and means
- Universal - marriage
- Particular - the marriage of Jane and John Doe
- What is meant by a moral virtue?
- those that perfect the appetitive powers of the soul
- What is meant by a mean in moral virtues?
- a balance between the extremes of excess and deficiency
- What is meant by command?
- the object of prudence, to direct subordinates in the right course of action
- What is the difference between an individual and a common good?
- an individual good has as its end the good of a specific person, whereas the common good has as its end the collective good of the many.
- What is meant by good counsel?
- the research of reason to perform any particular act
- What is meant by 'judging well according to common law?'
- right judgment about particular practical matters
- What is meant by 'judging well according to general law?'
- right judgment according to higher principles
- When is imprudence a sun?
- When it is a negation, not a privation, i.e. the movement or act of reason is in opposition to prudence, i.e. rejecting counsel. Mortal when it involves contempt and rejection of the Divine Law, but venial if acting beside the Law and without contempt and with out detriment to things necessary for salvation.
- How/ why is lust a cause of imprudence?
- because pleasure corrupts the operation of right reason
- What is the difference between prudence of the flesh and craftiness?
- prudence of the flesh denotes a man who sees carnal goods as his final end
- craftiness is the obtaining of an end, whether good or evil, through counterfeit means
- How is right related to justice?
- right is the object of justice
- What are the two basic kinds of right?
- Natural right
- Positive right
- What constitutes a natural right?
- the law of equal returns, unchangeable
- What is a positive right?
- a thing is adjusted or commensurated to a person by agreement or common consent
- In what part of the soul does justice reside?
- the will
- How is justice a general virtue?
- the good of any virtue is referable to the common good, which justice directs, so that all acts of virtue can pertain to justice, insofar as it directs the common good
- How is justice a particular or special virtue?
- a legal justice directs a man immediately to the good of another individual
- What are the two species of justice?
- Distributive (whole in relation to its parts)
- Commutative (part to part)
- What is restitution?
- to reinstate a person in the possession or dominion of his lawful goods, must be given for salvation, must pay back the inequality, not just the amount, including giving what was not given in the first place.
- What does Aquinas mean by respect of person?
- Respect of someone's position or office rather than their personal merits
- Under what conditions is killing another person lawful?
- Involuntary, so long as not negligent
- self-defense, only so far as it is an unfortunate side-effect
- Defense of the community or common good
- justice executed by legitimate authority
- What is Aquinas' argument for corporal punishment?
- for the sake of the whole, a part may suffer, especially for the cure of that part
- What is the difference between theft and robbery?
- Theft takes in secret whereas robbery takes by force
- Which is worse?
- What is calumny?
- falsely charging a person with a crime
- What are the three species of lying?
- Jacose: a lie told in jest
- Officious: a lie told for the benefit of something else
- Malicious: a lie told in order to do someone/something harm
- What is reviling?
- the dishonoring of a person
- What is backbiting?
- speaking against another's name secretly
- What does Aquinas mean by tale-bearing?
- Speaking evil of persons in order to sever relationships
- What is derision?
- Shaming a person with words
- What does Aquinas mean by cursing?
- to command or desire another's evil, as evil, being intent on the evil itself
- Why does Aquinas think that usury is wrong?
- Usury is to sell what does not exist, because money is consumed by its use, and therefore there is an inequality in transaction, which is injustice
- What is the difference between sins of omission and sins of transgression or commission?
- a sin of omission is not doing what one ought to do
- a transgression is doing what one ought not to do
- What does Aquinas mean by religion?
- offering service and ceremonial rites to a superior nature that men call divine
- How is religion a natural phenomenon, rather than a part of special revelation?
- Natural reason tells man that he is subject to a thing higher than himself on account of his personal defects. Naturally, anything superior deserves obeisance from that which is inferior
- What is the difference between natural religion and revealed religion?
- Natural religion - public signs, philosophy and natural revelation,
- Revealed religion - given by God to private individuals, involves belief
- What does Aquinas mean by prayer?
- To ask becoming things of God, an act of reason
- How is prayer efficacious?
- by prayer we make ourselves able to receive what God has already deigned to give us (partial causality)
- What are the two theological errors that one must avoid in a discussion of prayer?
- God can change His mind
- Implying necessity on human affairs
- What is meant by contingent?
- that which could be otherwise
- What is meant by necessary?
- that which could not possibly be otherwise
- What does Aquinas mean by sacrifice?
- Offering certain sensible signs to God as a sign of the subjugation and honor due to Him
- What does Aquinas mean by vow?
- A binding to do or omit some particular thing
- What is meant by an oath?
- Calling God to bear witness to the Truth of a statement
- Is cursing the same as using foul or obscene language?
- What is perjury?
- to swear falsely under oath
- What is piety?
- giving honor to one's parents
- What is observance?
- paying honor to persons in positions of dignity
- What is dulia?
- paying honor to those humans that are above us
- What is latria?
- to give honor to God
- What is honor?
- recognition of merit
- What is the virtue of truth?
- speaking the truth with entire self - representing oneself honestly
- What are the different kinds of lies?
- material lie
- formal lie
- What is the difference between a material lie and a formal lie?
- material - false statement (irrespective of intent)
- formal - intention to deceive (irrespective of truth of words)
- What is irony?
- belittling oneself
- What is affability and its corresponding vices?
- flattery as excess and quarreling as deficiency
- What is liberality and its corresponding vices?
- to use money well for the sake of others
- covetousness as the deficiency
- prodigality as excess
- What is equity?
- interpreting law according to the spirit of the law and not its letter
- How does the Decalogue pertain to the virtues?
- They confirm the basic principles of morality. Religion pertains to the first three, piety to the fourth and justice to all the rest
- What is fortitude?
- that which removes all obstacles to doing good
- What is the ultimate act of fortitude?
- What is magnanimity?
- literally 'great mindedness,' pursuing great things
- What is munificence?
- greatness in regards money
- What is ambition?
- excess of magnanimity
- What is pusillanimity?
- deficiency of magnanimity, literally 'small mindedness'
- What is temperance?
- the moderation of pleasures
- What is shamefacedness?
- when one is embarrassed of their sins
- How does shamefacedness point to the reality of ethics?
- shows a recognition of wrongdoing
- What does Aquinas mean by fasting and abstinence?
- fasting is withholding from all food
- abstinence is withholding from certain foods
- What is the difference between chastity and virginity?
- chastity is regulation of venereal acts according to one's state in life
- virginity is complete abstinence from venereal acts
- Why are lust and drunkenness sinful?
- because they draw men away from the order of right reason
- What is continence and incontinence?
- continence - doing what is right in opposition to desire
- incontinence - doing what is wrong in conjunction with desire in opposition of conscience
- What is cruelty?
- hardness of heart in exacting punishment
- What is meekness?
- that which moderates anger
- What is clemency?
- that which moderates punishment
- What is modesty?
- honesty in outward movements
- How is anger a virtue?
- when it directs a man to correction of a wrong
- What is studiousness?
- moderation of desire for knowledge
- What is curiosity?
- excess with regards studiousness
- What are the capital vices?
- What makes a vice capital?
- derived from 'caput' meaning head, a vice leading to other vices